# Math

*As mathematician and author Oleg Gleizer says, "Math is freedom. If we don't know math, our choices are so limited."*

#### Pre Algebra Honors

- Students in pre-algebra use problem solving, mathematical communication, mathematical reasoning, connections, and representations to integrate understanding within this course.
- Students in pre-algebra focus on mastering rational numbers. Rational numbers play a critical role in the development of proportional reasoning and advanced mathematical thinking. The study of rational numbers builds on the understanding of whole numbers, fractions, and decimals developed by students in earlier grades. Proportional reasoning is the key to making connections to most middle school mathematics topics.
- Students develop an understanding of integers and rational numbers by using concrete, pictorial, and abstract representations. They learn how to use equivalent representations of fractions, decimals, and percents and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each type of representation. Flexible thinking about rational-number representations is encouraged when students solve problems.
- Students develop an understanding of the properties of operations on real numbers through experiences with rational numbers and by applying the order of operations.
- Students use a variety of concrete, pictorial, and abstract representations to develop proportional reasoning skills. Ratios and proportions are a major focus of mathematics learning in the middle grades.

#### Algebra 1 Honors

Algebra 1 Honors establishes the groundwork for the study of higher-level math classes. Primary topics studied are linear equations, inequalities, polynomials, factoring, exponents, lines, systems of equations, and graphing techniques. The relations and properties are dealt with in the domain of real numbers, which includes rational and irrational numbers. Basic objectives are to help the student

- Understand the structure of Algebra,
- Acquire facility in applying algebraic concepts to problem solving, and prepare for Geometry.

Success in Algebra I must be encouraged and emphasized since it is an accurate indicator of future success.

Algebra is:

- Using the things you know to figure out what you want to know.
- Thinking about the relationships between things and how changing one thing affects everything else.

The tools of Algebra let us understand, model, and solve the problems faced in the real world. From budgeting, business planning, science, to vacation planning, Algebraic tools can be used every day.

#### Geometry Honors

The focus of learning in Geometry Honors is on points, lines, planes, two-dimensional shapes, three-dimensional shapes and their relationships, logic and reasoning, coordinate geometry, introductory trigonometry, and transformations. Emphasis is placed on the description and use of inductive, deductive, and intuitive reasoning skills. Students will focus on comparisons between figures concerning surface areas, volumes, congruency, similarity, transformations, and coordinate Geometry. Algebra I skills are used throughout the course.

Geometry is:

- Using the shapes and properties we know to figure out what you want to know.
- Thinking about the relationships between things and how changing one thing affects everything else.

The world around us is three-dimensional. Shapes, volumes, and their relationships show up in almost everything we do – crafts, construction, medicine, planning and design, and even playing in virtual worlds.

#### Algebra II/Trigonometry Honors

This course is an extension of Algebra I and provides further development of the concept of functions.

Topics include:

- Relations, functions, equations and inequalities, Conic sections, Polynomials, Algebraic fractions, Logarithmic and exponential functions, Sequences and series, and Counting principles.

Be reminded, Algebra 2 is NOT an introductory course and topics learned in Algebra 1 will be built upon. This Algebra 2 course is taught at the college preparatory level and taught for proficiency on university admission tests.

#### Statistics

Statistics will introduce students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing and drawing conclusions from data.

Students are exposed to four broad conceptual themes:

- Exploring Data: Describing patterns and departures from patterns
- Sampling and Experimentation: Planning and conducting a study
- Anticipating Patterns: Exploring random phenomena using probability and simulation
- Statistical Inference: Estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses

Information is everywhere in the modern world. Our students need to understand what the information does and does not mean to be fully functioning parts of our society. Our students must learn how to obtain, analyze, synthesize, evaluate, critique, and draw inferences from statistics.

#### PreCalculus

Precalculus will extend students knowledge of algebra and trigonometry to further prepare them for university level courses in mathematics and science. Important topics covered include:

- Functions and graphs: linear, polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric, Analytic trigonometry, Systems of equations and inequalities, Analytic geometry, Matrices and determinants, and Sequences.

#### Calculus

This course covers functions including parametric, polar, and vector representations, use of graphs, derivatives and their applications, differentials, limits, integrals and their applications, and infinite series.

Calculus ties together all of the mathematical skills learned in Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry and proves many of the theorems and formulas that were discovered and used in these previous courses. Calculus prepares students for many careers and is a requirement for several major areas of study.